The underlying problem is that we haven’t incorporated necessary safeguards against (1) stability loss in waves, (2) parametric rolling and (3) vulnerability to surf-riding and broaching in Intact Stability rules yet. Present IMO Intact stability rules analyze and provide safeguards as per the behavior of the vessel only in calm water (uniform waterplane). Second Generation Intact Stability criteria under development by IMO would incorporate safeguards against all the above-mentioned three dangers. I haven’t seen the video you mention in your post (no link!) but Kennebec Captain’s post seems to suggest that the container vessel is experiencing parametric roll.
Parametric roll basically happens because of change in waterplane area as a wave passes along the ship - in waves, the vessel’s waterplane area keeps continuously changing. The changing waterplane area in turn changes the GM of the vessel, and leads to changes in restoring forces acting on the vessel due to the changes in GM (and hence GZ). The other important requirement is that the encounter frequency and natural roll frequency of the vessel attain a certain ratio.
The criteria that lead to parametric roll to kick in are highly complex relationships between:
(i) The length and depth of the vessel
(ii) Difference in GM between the highest and lowest drafts of the vessel
(iii) Wave encounter frequency of the vessel at the time of operation (which are also affected by both its velocity and heading)
(iv) Operation speed of the vessel
(v) Appendages that increase damping (eg. bilge keel)
A ratio that may be signify a probability of parametric roll is GMa/GMo > 0.12, GMa is the mean of the difference between the lowest (Gmin) and highest (Gmax) GM for one passage of a wave crest along the ship hull, and the GMo is the mean of Gmin and Gmax. Each vessel has its characteristic speed envelope where it is vulnerable to probabilistic rolling. Merely satisfying these criteria does not make parametric rolling a certainty, but there are further tests that may confirm parametric rolling conditions, and it typically involves calculating the maximum roll angle, which is a fifth degree equation. In case the damping is sufficiently large to overcome the energy gain from waves, the roll will decay, and no parametric resonance roll will be experienced. In case the roll equation’s solution does not decay (ie, insufficient damping), it develops into parametric roll.
It has typically been observed that containerships, (unfortunately) RoPax and cruise vessels are most susceptible to parametric rolls. Tankers, bulk and gas carriers and naval vessels are considered “safe”. General cargo vessels, fishing vessels and workboats come in the “grey” zone.
From my personal experience, there was a case where a sister vessel of a decently operating vessel was found to have parametric roll issues after elongating it by a mere 20 ft. The problem was solved by installing a huge anti roll tank just below the pilot house - this also goes on to show that making a vessel more top heavy does not necessarily make it more susceptible to parametric rolling - it is a combination of factors mentioned above that land a vessel in the danger zone. I concede however that cruise vessels, RoPax vessels and general cargo are typically more top-heavy than a naval vessel or a tanker.
IMO has guidelines for operation in dangerous situations. MSC.1/Circ.1228 “REVISED GUIDANCE TO THE MASTER FOR AVOIDING DANGEROUS SITUATIONS IN ADVERSE WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS” is a good guide for Master Mariners. It gives guidance on speeds and angle of encounters to avoid depending on the length of the ship, time period of the wave, etc.
Incidents of parametric roll should decrease once the second generation criteria are incorporated into the IMO Intact Stability Code in the near future. Problems like parametric roll can and should be tackled at the design stage than leaving these problems to Mariners to slug it out with the elements in high seas.
For further information on Second Generation Intact Stability criteria, I suggest reading “The Second Generation of Intact Stability Criteria: An Overview of Development” by W.Peters, V.Belenky, C.Bassler, K.Spyrou, N.Umeda, G.Bulian, B.Altmeyer - SNAME (2011).