From 2016, very good article.
To read the full article requires downloading the pdf file.
Today, the responsibility borne by a ship
captain rarely comes with the corresponding authority, and exercising
authority can be challenging in an international labour market
characterised by questionable labour laws and weak institutional
We need to avoid making the Master the
single point of failure within the system, but at the same time there
is a serious need to empower the master-on-the-scene and treat their
judgment with utmost respect, given its role in ensuring safety and
resilience within the maritime industry