The Attack Carrier from Langley to Enterprise 1969 US Navy; Naval Aviation History
( Jeff Quitney)
[B]Published on Oct 16, 2015[/B]
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviatio…
“THE ATTACK CARRIER - FROM USS LANGLEY CV1 TO USS ENTERPRISE CVAN 65 - A HISTORICAL REVIEW COVERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER FROM THE USS LANGLEY TO THE USS ENTERPRISE.”
US Navy film MN-10164
Aircraft Carrier playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list…
Reupload of a previously uploaded film, in one piece instead of multiple parts, and with improved video & sound.
Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).
The 1903 advent of heavier-than-air, fixed-wing aircraft was closely followed in 1910 by the first experimental take-off of such an airplane from the deck of a United States Navy vessel (cruiser USS Birmingham), and the first experimental landings were conducted in 1911. Seaplane tender support ships came next; in September 1914, the Imperial Japanese Navy Wakamiya conducted the world’s first successful naval-launched air raids. It lowered four Maurice Farman seaplanes into the water using its crane, which were taking off to bombard German forces and could be retrieved back from surface afterwards.
The development of flat top vessels produced the first large fleet ships. In 1918, HMS Argus became the world’s first carrier capable of launching and landing naval aircraft. Carrier evolution was well underway in the mid-1920s, resulting in ships such as HMS Hermes and Hōshō. Most early aircraft carriers were conversions of ships that were laid down (or had served) as different ship types: cargo ships, cruisers, battlecruisers, or battleships. The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 affected aircraft carrier plans. The U.S. and UK were permitted up to 135,000 tons of carriers each, while specific exemptions on the upper tonnage of individual ships permitted conversion of capital ship hulls to carriers such as the Lexington-class aircraft carriers.
During the 1920s, several navies started ordering and building aircraft carriers that were specifically designed as such…
The aircraft carrier was used extensively in World War II, and several types were created as a result. Escort aircraft carriers, such as USS Bogue, were built only during World War II. Although some were purpose-built, most were converted from merchant ships as a stop-gap measure to provide air support for convoys and amphibious invasions… The UK 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier served the Royal Navy during the war and was the hull design chosen for nearly all aircraft carrier equipped navies after the war until the 1980s.
Wartime emergencies also spurred the creation or conversion of unconventional aircraft carriers. CAM ships, like SS Michael E, were cargo-carrying merchant ships which could launch but not retrieve fighter aircraft from a catapult…
Modern navies that operate such ships treat aircraft carriers as the capital ship of the fleet, a role previously played by the battleship… Supercarriers, displacing 75,000 tonnes or greater, have become the pinnacle of carrier development. Some are powered by nuclear reactors and form the core of a fleet designed to operate far from home. Amphibious assault ships, such as USS Tarawa and HMS Ocean, serve the purpose of carrying and landing Marines, and operate a large contingent of helicopters for that purpose. Also known as “commando carriers” or “helicopter carriers”, many have a secondary capability to operate VSTOL aircraft.
Lacking the firepower of other warships, carriers by themselves are considered vulnerable to be attacked by other ships, aircraft, submarines, or missiles. Therefore, aircraft carriers are generally accompanied by a number of other ships to provide protection for the relatively unwieldy carrier, to carry supplies, and to provide additional offensive capabilities. This is often termed a battle group or carrier group, sometimes a carrier battle group.
Before World War II international naval treaties of 1922, 1930 and 1936 limited the size of capital ships including carriers. Aircraft carrier designs since World War II have been effectively unlimited by any consideration save budgetary, and the ships have increased in size to handle the larger aircraft. The large, modern Nimitz class of United States Navy carriers has a displacement nearly four times that of the World War II–era USS Enterprise, yet its complement of aircraft is roughly the same—a consequence of the steadily increasing size and weight of military aircraft over the years…