[QUOTE=Dutchie;195615]In Korean culture you donot correct the boss. Korean cockpit culture was almost unarguably the primary cause of a number of accidents. Korean society is very hierarchical and respectful, and a lot of the accidents have simply come down to first officers not wanting to question the decisions of captains, given that they had basically be “insulting” them.
Historically Korean airlines have abysmal safety records, even so that the US military stopped flying their personnel in the Pacific with them. The situation changed drastically for the better since the crash of a 747, flight 8509, shortly after take off in the UK in 1999. The flight engineer gave a warning about the malfunction of an essential navigational instrument but the captain did not react. The first officer was aware of this but preferred dying above correcting the captain or taking over the control of the airplane, such is or rather was Korean cockpit culture, unarguably the primary cause of the crash.
Almost all Korean civil pilots were ex airforce pilots flying small fighter planes. Captain Park stepped out of the military as a colonel and as such in their way of thinking he could not be a first officer without loss of face but became, after the simulator training, immediately a captain.
After the findings of the cause of this last incident Korean Airlines totally changed their cockpit training where proper communication was all important as well as working as a team instead of having one leader and two zombies. As a result no incidents have taken place since 1999 and Korean Airlines is regarded now as a safe airline.
The investigation of the crash can be seen via the link. See also what is said about the culture problem at 36:45 min.
Coming back to the El Faro there are indications that there was also a certain lack of communications on the bridge between the captain and the other crew members, a reluctance to voice their concerns strongly about the developing hurricane situation.[/QUOTE]
In all Asian cultures this is a problem, but especially in countries where Confucian teaching is prevalent, like in Korea. It is also a problem in the Malay culture, (Malaysia, Indonesia and part of the Philippines) but for different cultural reasons.
I have referred earlier to an accident investigation I did where an otherwise well qualified and experienced Indonesian Tug Master waited too long to warn a Mooring Master on a tanker he was assisting that he was going too fast for the capabilities of an AHT. He and three others perished when the tug breached and capsized. By the time he shouted a warning it was too late.
I knew him personally and can vouch for his abilities, but also his unwillingness to do things he would see as “rude”.
I didn’t think this would be a problem in an American setting though. (If I was that Tug Master I would have shouted - in no uncertain terms - a lot earlier)