I was just looking at the Table of Contents to the book “The Lost Art of Finding Our Way”. The book talks about the distinction between route knowledge and survey knowledge. Route knowledge being how to get from here to there, Survey knowledge, according to the book is “a complete familiarity with an environment”.
There are analogies to be made here I think. Learning “how to navigate” is an illusion in a way. Learning the route, a particular set of tasks or certain skills, even a network of routes sometimes leads us to believe that survey knowledge does not exist.
In science and history, consilience (also convergence of evidence or concordance of evidence ) is the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can “converge” on strong conclusions. That is, when multiple sources of evidence are in agreement, the conclusion can be very strong even when none of the individual sources of evidence is significantly so on its own.
When we think in terms of standard navigation practices we think in terms of the "cross-check. That is to use another standard but independent method, for example visual bearings and radar ranges. These sources are “related”.
…like the internationally most famous traditional sailor, the late Mau Piailug (died 2010), from the Satawal Island (eastern Yap State). He sailed into Polynesia (Hawaii, Tahiti, Pago Pago etc).
The traditional sailing is still ‘teached’ at the eastern Yap islands (Satawal, Lamotrek) and the western Chuuk islands (Poluwat, Pulusuk).
I never read of a persistent heritage of traditional sailing in Polynesia, only in Micronesia.
For more than a thousand years long distance noninstrumental navigation has been practiced over large areas of Polynesia, Micronesia, and perhaps in parts of Melanesia. In Polynesia, the traditional techniques atrophied and were ultimately lost in the wake of contact with colonial powers. Only the Micronesians have maintained their traditional skills and in the past decade they have been the wellspring of navigation knowledge for a renaissance of traditional voyaging throughout the Pacific basin(Finney, 1979; Lewis, 1976, 1978).
Pacific Islanders originate from countries within the Oceanic regions of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. New Zealand is uniquely within Australasia as well as Polynesia and its majority European and native Māori populations are not considered Pacific Islanders.
Of the Polynesians, theTongans were most advanced and voyaged frequently between the Western Lau group of Fiji and to Samoa, not always with benevolent intent. The Maori of New Zealand are believed to have voyaged South from Rarotonga about a thousand years ago and from recent archeological evidence of the crops they grew the climate in New Zealand was warmer than it is today.
It was my understanding that most voyages took place at the same time of year and the directions to each island group was indicated by a certain star rising or setting as well as the behaviour of birds and swell patterns.
Yes you are correct but on our ship, on long open ocean stretches, I make plotting sheets ahead of time for the entire transit. Using paper charts and ECDIS for the hourly position verification but simultaneously each watch does a star/ dun line and continues with a running fix or a star fix. At least at night I will shoot Polaris for the required Azimuth and at least to get a line of latitude.
Interesting comparison between merchie and navy. The Navy template does offer the advantage of freeing the conn from mundane pigeonholed tasks due to the division of tasks among a large bridge full of ratings feeding the conn data. The downside is the conn is detached from thngs such as CPAs, TCPAs nearest shoal water etc as abstract data streams. By the very nature of dangerously reduced manning on merchant bridges, we end up being a one conning officer show and are more involved with the actual meaning of <0.25nm CPAs etc. When I came from limited tonnage OSV,s and Seismic survey industry ships where I was the sole watch and the bridge instrumentation was economically wrapped around me. I had a keen sense of spatial relationship especially in way of set and drift of OBC seismic buoys and how close I could crab up to them downstream a strong current man the searchlight radar VHF and backdeck radio with the seismic crew and still converse with traffic directing what course they needed to take to give our “prospect” area the required distance to not interfere with our data recording, or on OSVs free-boating at a MODU or production platform holding her stern under the crane in all opposing sea and current scenarios. Now on a deep draft ship for years, I avoid being on the bridge as I am reduced to a “hand puppet” manning the throttles which my four year old grandson could master. I would be hard pressed to perform at the situational level I possessed years ago.