Faced with intolerable working conditions, fires and higher and higher boiler pressures creating deadly explosions; steamboat engineers banded together. Important to the future of M.E.B.A. was the formation in 1854 of the Buffalo Association of Engineers.
p 13 – > The Franklin Institute workers also produced some positive findings.
They determined that the gauge cocks, commonly used to ascertain
the level of water inside the boilers, did not in fact show the true level,
and that a glass tube gauge was much more reliable, if kept free from
Eh? How could this be? Gauge cock only indicates >/= at its level, of course, but it fails safe. Or were they concerned about the extra effort needed to operate the cock vs looking at the glass?
Because there were normally 3, one above the glass, on at the middle, and one just below the glass. Test cocks only show water, steam, or a mixture, not level and when used on high pressure boilers it takes an experienced operator to tell the difference between steam and water flashing to steam.