ocnslr, I agree sir. Immediately after the collision, it would not be clear if the ship was under attack or if it was an accident.
Operations would probably be very different on a surface ship than on a submarine, but as a (enlisted) submarine veteran, we definitely would not call the other ship. Safety is the first priority: control any damage to the boat and try to maximize the distance between the boat and any other vessel.
On a submarine, we have a radio room as well, but there are several different backups for most systems. For example, primary propulsion is the nuclear reactor, but we also have a diesel engine, and we also have a battery bank that can drive the boat (very slowly) via an electric motor. We have hand held VHF radios for B2B if needed. I have no idea if surface combatant vessels have hand held B2B radios. I would imagine so.
We very rarely communicate with surface vessels, especially civilian surface vessels. When we do we try to avoid identifying the boat. We never say over the radio "this is the USS Florida SSBN-728 on heading XXX". The Navy considers that (the boat's exact location) to be classified information, at least with regard to submarines. And of course we don't have the hull number painted on the boat. The Puddle Pirates refer to submarines over the radio as "submarine 1", "submarine 2", etc. I remember one time we were sailing away from the coast, about to submerge. The Puddle Pirates said over the radio "Submarine 2, ok just let me know when you're going to submerge." One of the junior officers turned to the Senior Chief Nav ET and said, "hey, Senior, we're not really going to tell them that, right?". And the Senior Chief said "nope, we won't do that, sir. It's classified. We'll just disappear."
And that's what we did.